Technical Terminologies used in Automotive engineering
Many of the terminologies are used in automotive engineering. Explained terminologies are the ones, automotive engineer should be aware of.
Air–fuel ratio: It is the ratio of quantity of air needed for combustion to the mass of fuel to be combusted. It’s described as a 14.7:1 ratio. This means that for every 1 gram of fuel, 14.7 grams of air are needed.
Analogue: A variable quantity like an alternator’s voltage output.
Darlington pair: A circuit that contains two transistors coupled to increase the current gain. It is used for switching in high-current automotive circuits.
Differential lock: A system that temporarily disables differential transmission gears to increase traction in demanding driving conditions.
Gradeability: The total gradient angle that a vehicle can ascend.
Inertia: Inertia is the resistance that a body gives when it moves to start from rest or change speed.
Brake power: The real power available on an engine’s output shaft. It is the energy exerted on a brake called a dynamometer. Brake power is measured in kW, but is often used with the term brake horse power (bhp); 1bhp=0.746kW.
HEGO: It is heated exhaust gas oxygen sensor. These are exhaust gas oxygen sensors that are equipped with a heating element that reduces the time required to reach a satisfactory operating temperature for the sensor.
Oxygen sensor: The percentage of oxygen in an engine’s exhaust gas is detected by exhaust gas oxygen sensors (EGOs).
Pollutant Pollutants: These are the gasses and other materials arising from motor vehicle activity. CO2, NO x and CO are among the substances that harm the atmosphere and the environment in general when it comes to engine emissions.
Roll centre: The height of a vehicle’s roll center is the distance from the ground to the point at which the vehicle body appears to roll when it is subjected to a side force, such as the centrifugal force produced by turning a corner. The roll center height is determined by the suspension system type. The front roll center and the rear roll center are generally at different heights, and the roll axis is defined as the imaginary line drawn between the two roll centres.
Load transfer: Load transfer is the visible load transfer from front to back of a vehicle that takes place when the vehicle is braked or accelerated. The shift of load from side to side also results from centrifugal force when the vehicle turns.
Zirconium: Zirconium is a metallic component used to create exhaust gas oxygen sensors of the voltaic form.
Xenon: One of the noble gases is Xenon. It is used in the manufacture of headlamps in small quantities to provide an increased amount of light.
Specific fuel consumption: The fuel mass (weight) that each kW of an engine’s energy absorbs under test bed conditions in 1 hour. SFC is expressed in kg/kWh and is a measure of the ability of an engine to convert fuel to power.
Selective catalyst reduction: A system used to reduce NOx emissions on some diesel engine vehicles. A liquid like urea is injected into the exhaust stream where a catalyst is used to convert NOx into N2 (nitrogen) gas and H2O (water vapour).
Traction control: A computer-controlled system that manages the functions of anti-lock braking, differential lock and engine management to ensure maximum vehicle control under a variety of driving conditions.